All About Vitamins

Choline
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Why choline is good for you

Choline is one of the B vitamin co-factors. It assists the B vitamins to function more effectively.

Choline is called the brain food, because it is necessary to make a neurotransmitter that is crucial for brain functions (acetylcholine) and to also to help make the fatty membranes of the brain cells (phospholipid). Choline works closely with vitamin H (biotin) and inositol as well as all the B Vitamins to turn foods eaten into energy for the body.

Choline moves fats from the liver by metabolising them. Choline keeps fats from building up in the liver, thus preventing a "fatty" liver.

 

Important choline facts

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Groups at risk of choline deficiency

There are none reported.

 

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Symptoms of choline deficiency

Deficiency of choline creates a condition called "fatty liver", where fat stores on the liver are increased and the liver does not work efficiently as it gets damaged from the fat stores.

Deficiency of choline, while it can occur, is very rare, as most people get enough choline in their diet.

 

Choline and health

Talk to a medical professional about choline supplements BEFORE taking them.

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Choline in food

FOOD AMOUNT
Choline (mg)
Egg yolk, raw
1 cup
682.4
Beef liver, pan fried
100g
418.3
Veal liver, pan fried
100g
411.0
Beef liver, raw
100g
333.2
Veal liver, raw
100g
309.9
Chicken liver, pan fried
100g
308.5
Whole egg, raw
100g
251.0
Chicken liver, raw
100g
194.5
Bacon, pan fried
100g
130.8
Bacon, baked
100g
119.3
Beef patty (95% lean), cooked
100g
85.4
Atlantic cod, cooked
100g
83.7
Pork loin chops, raw
100g
80.1
Chicken, meat only, roasted
100g
78.7
Pistachio nuts, dry roasted, salted
100g
71.5
Chicken, meat and skin, roasted
100g
65.9
Chicken, meat only, raw
100g
65.6
Cashews, dry roasted, salted
100g
61.0
Chicken, meat and skin, raw
100g
59.7
Pork sausage, raw
100g
53.0
Almonds
100g
52.0
Kellogg's All Bran cereal
100g
49.4
Navy beans, cooked without salt
100g
44.8
Brussels sprouts, cooked without salt
100g
40.7
Cauliflower, cooked without salt
100g
39.1
Wheatbran, crude
50g
37.8
Artichokes, cooked without salt
100g
34.4
Milk, whole (3.5% fat)
1 cup
28.4

 

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Choline recommended daily intake (RDI)

RDA lifestage age amount
  INFANTS 0-6mths
7-12mths
125mg
150mg
  CHILDREN 1-3yrs
4-8yrs
200mg
250mg
  CHILDREN 9-13yrs
male: 14-18yrs
female: 14-18yrs
375mg
550mg
400mg
  ADULTS male: 19-50yrs
female: 19-50yrs
550mg
425mg
  SENIORS male: 51+yrs
female: 51+yrs
550mg
425mg
  PREGNANT   450mg
  LACTATING   550mg
 
TOLERABLE UPPER LIMIT lifestage age amounT
  INFANTS 0-12mths n/a*
  CHILDREN 1-8yrs 1000mg
  CHILDREN 9-13yrs
14-18yrs
2000mg
3000mg
  ADULTS 19-50yrs 3500mg
  SENIORS 51+yrs
3500mg
  PREGNANT <18yrs
19-50yrs
3000mg
3500mg
  LACTATING <18yrs
19-50yrs
3000mg
3500mg
 
TOXIC LEVELS Relatively non-toxic, but some toxicity symptoms can occur at supplement levels greater than 5-10g (5000-1000mg)


The tolerable upper limits should only be taken for short periods and only under medical supervision.


* The tolerable upper limit for choline for infants aged 0-12 months has not yet been determined due to a lack of data about the adverse effects in this age group. The only source of choline intake should be from food (breast milk and/or baby formula).

 

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Choline works best with

 

 

Overdosage, toxicity and cautions for choline

Choline is a relative non-toxic vitamin, except at exceedingly high doses.

Side effects at very high doses (above 10g) are:


CAUTIONS



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references

 

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Last reviewed: 1 January 2009 || Last updated: 1 January 2009

 

NOTE: Mega doses of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, or other supplements cannot cure illnesses and in fact can be very dangerous and produce toxic side effects and interfere with medicine you are taking. Always ensure you consult your doctor before taking any type of nutrient supplement.
Disclaimer: This guide is not intended to be used for diagnostic or prescriptive purposes. For any treatment or diagnosis of illness, please see your doctor.

 

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